The location of the public protected areas (PA-blue spots) and private protected areas (PPA-green spots) in Western Ecuador used in this study to compare bird species richness between them. The location of the Buenaventura Reserve in Ecuador is illustrated by a red spot. The figure on the right shows the limits of Buenaventura Reserve (red line), showing the remaining native forests (green polygons), obtained from the land use cover of the Environment Ministry of Ecuador in 2018 (available at

  Part of: Guerrero-Casado J, Seoane JM, Aguirre N, Torres-Porras J (2021) Success in conserving the bird diversity in tropical forests through private protected areas in Western Ecuador. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 16(2): 351-367.